The agriculture sector is underperforming in many developing countries, in part because women do not have equal access to the resources and opportunities they need to be more productive. The gender gap imposes real costs on society in terms of lost agricultural output, food security and economic growth. Promoting gender equality is not only good for women; it is also good for agricultural development. It highlights the main findings of statistical analysis worldwide in a broad range of fields -- including families, health, education, work, human rights and politics.
Definitions[ edit ] Robert Adams points to the limitations of any single definition of 'empowerment', and the danger that academic or specialist definitions might take away the word and the connected practices from the very people they are supposed to belong to.
Empowerment as a methodology is also associated with feminism. Process[ edit ] Empowerment is the process of obtaining basic opportunities for marginalized people, either directly by those people, or through the help of non-marginalized others who share their own access to these opportunities.
It also includes actively thwarting attempts to deny those opportunities. Empowerment also includes encouraging, and developing the skills for, self-sufficiencywith a focus on eliminating the future need for charity or welfare in the individuals of the group. This process can be difficult to start and to implement effectively.
Strategy[ edit ] One empowerment strategy is to assist marginalized people to create their own nonprofit organizationusing the rationale that only the marginalized people, themselves, can know what their own people need most, and that control of the organization by outsiders can actually help to further entrench marginalization.
Charitable organizations lead from outside of the community, for example, can disempower the community by entrenching a dependence charity or welfare. A nonprofit organization can target strategies that cause structural changes, reducing the need for ongoing dependence.
Red Crossfor example, can focus on improving the health of indigenous people, but does not have authority in its charter to install water-delivery and purification systems, even though the lack of such a system profoundly, directly and negatively impacts health.
A nonprofit composed of the indigenous people, however, could ensure their own organization does have such authority and could set their own agendas, make their own plans, seek the needed resources, do as much of the work as they can, and take responsibility — and credit — for the success of their projects or the consequences, should they fail.
In other words, "Empowerment is not giving people power, people already have plenty of power, in the wealth of their knowledge and motivation, to do their jobs magnificently.
We define empowerment as letting this power out. To empower a female " Criticism[ edit ] Before there can be the finding that a particular group requires empowerment and that therefore their self-esteem needs to be consolidated on the basis of awareness of their strengths, there needs to be a deficit diagnosis usually carried out by experts assessing the problems of this group.
The fundamental asymmetry of the relationship between experts and clients is usually not questioned by empowerment processes. It is particularly questionable whether mentally ill people in acute crisis situations are in a position to make their own decisions. According to Albert Lenz, people behave primarily regressive in acute crisis situations and tend to leave the responsibility to professionals.
In social work and community psychology[ edit ] Empowerment in the work for senior citizens in a residential home in Germany In social workempowerment offers an approach that allows social workers to increase the capacity for self-help of their clients.
They lose their self-confidence because they cannot be fully self-supporting. The opportunities denied them also deprive them of the pride of accomplishment which others, who have those opportunities, can develop for themselves. This in turn can lead to psychological, social and even mental health problems.
In health promotion practice and research[ edit ] As a concept, and model of practice, empowerment is also used in health promotion research and practice. The key principle is for individuals to gain increased control over factors that influence their health status . To empower individuals and to obtain more equity in health, it is also important to address health-related behaviors .
Studies suggest that health promotion interventions aiming at empowering adolescents should enable active learning activities, use visualizing tools to facilitate self-reflection, and allow the adolescents to influence intervention activities .
In economics[ edit ] According to Robert Adams, there is a long tradition in the UK and the USA respectively to advance forms of self-help that have developed and contributed to more recent concepts of empowerment.
For example, the free enterprise economic theories of Milton Friedman embraced self-help as a respectable contributor to the economy. Economic empowerment is also the empowering of previously disadvantaged sections of the population, for example, in many previously colonized African countries.
Legal empowerment approaches are interested in understanding how they can use the law to advance interests and priorities of the marginalised.
Legal empowerment is about grass root justice, about ensuring that law is not confined to books or courtrooms, but rather is available and meaningful to ordinary people.
The state legal system is constrained by a range of different factors — from lack of resources to cultural issues. Among these factors economic, geographic, linguistic and other constraints on access to courts, lack of legal awareness as well as legal assistance tend to be recurrent problems.
Equal opportunity laws which actively oppose such marginalization, are supposed to allow empowerment to occur.
These laws made it illegal to restrict access to schools and public places based on race. They can also be seen as a symptom of minorities' and women's empowerment through lobbying.Gender empowerment conventionally refers to the empowerment of women, which is a significant topic of discussion in regards to development and economics nowadays.
From that perspective, new, “electronic forms of awareness” driven by information technology would empower citizen.
Women Empowerment Through Information Technology [Dr Usha Sharma] on metin2sell.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. CSW62 () The sixty-second session of the Commission on the Status of Women took place at the United Nations Headquarters in New York from 12 to 23 March Representatives of Member States, UN entities, and ECOSOC-accredited non-governmental organizations (NGOs) from all regions of the world attended the session.
Women Empowerment in Bangladesh Women empowerment in Bangladesh means giving women of the country the power to rule and govern their own lives, away from traditional and social constraints. The women empowerment movement in Bangladesh focuses on giving women the power and authority they need to be men’s equals.
Economic Empowerment of Women through Information Technology: A Case Study from an Indian State P. N. Prasad (). Economic Empowerment of Women through Information Technology: A Case Study from an Indian metin2sell.coml of International Women's Studies, 8(4), women empowerment, Self-help Groups, Digital divide The ICT Concept.
Enhancing Women Empowerment through Information and Communication Technology. INTRODUCTION Across the globe, countries have recognized Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as an effective tool in catalyzing the economic activity in efficient governance, and in developing human resources.