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Anne Hutchinson Smart, outspoken and opinionated, Anne Hutchinson was the daughter of an English minister, well versed in the Bible and devoted to the teaching of the popular preacher John Cotton.
InAnne and her family arrived in Boston, where her husband built a house directly across the street from the renowned and respected three-time governor of Massachusetts, John Winthrop. Trained as a midwife and nurse, Hutchinson began to hold small meetings in her home to discuss John Cotton's sermons.
Soon the meetings were attracting up to 60 people -- men and women. For a woman to engage theological discussions posed a subtle challenge to the patriarchy that governed the Bay Colony. From across the street, John Winthrop characterized Hutchinson as "a woman of haughty and fierce carriage, of a nimble wit and active spirit, and a very voluble tongue, more bold than a man.
In the fall ofshe accused Puritan ministers of making salvation dependent on an individual's good works rather than on divine grace, which was contrary to Puritan teaching.
The ministers denied this charge, arguing that good works are evidence of conversion and salvation, not the grounds of salvation. They argued that they were therefore not teaching a Covenant of Works. Hutchinson persisted, arguing that assurance of salvation came from a mystical experience of grace -- "an inward conviction of the coming of the Spirit.
Hutchinson went further, claiming that God had communicated to her by direct revelations and declaring that she was capable of interpreting the Scriptures on her own.
Hutchinson's charges constituted a frontal attack on the spiritual authority of both the church and society. For Puritans, the ultimate source of authority was the Bible as it was interpreted by duly authorized ministers.
Hutchinson's claim that she possessed the authority to interpret the Bible challenged this basic principle. Even more galling was her claim that she received immediate revelations from God.
Her challenge to official doctrine threatened to tear the Massachusetts Bay Colony apart. In NovemberHutchinson was brought before the General Court, the colony's principal governing body, on charges of sedition. Winthrop questioned her closely, but she eluded his grasp.
The following day Hutchinson changed her position. She freely acknowledged that God spoke to her directly. This claim constituted blasphemy. Now the court had grounds to punish her. The assembly voted and handed down its judgment: Hutchinson's experience speaks to a persistent question: What is the source of religious authority?
Is it the individual or the community? How much dissent can a religious community tolerate?
What are the limits, if any?In what ways did ideas and values held by Puritans influence the political, economic, and social development of the New England colonies from Ask New Question Bill Petro, .
The Effects of Puritanism and the Great Awakening Upon American Society Essay eighteenth century, both America economy was starting to grow stronger and Americans were trying to capitalize, focusing more on personal gain rather than spiritual gain.
However in the early 19th century Americans began to experience a renewed spiritual interest. Essay on Chapter Summaries On The Western Frontier This was an act aiming to Americanize the Native Americans by breaking up reservations so that each group/family had an equal amount of land.
Although, by the s, almost all of the land was taken over by the whites, resulting in . The Puritan religious faith originated in England during the early s.
The Puritans believed that the Anglican Church, the state's religious institution of England, needed to be purified of the influence of the Catholic religious faith, so they struck off on their own to the New World, where they established the Massachusetts colony.
Throughout the passage from the scarlet Letter, Author Nathaniel Hawthorne's emotions about the Puritans and the Puritan community are deeply expressed with a sense of critisism and mockery.
The Puritans, who are to be honorable people with good morals, are described by Hawthorne as harsh, and. The Puritan Effect in America Puritism in America formed from a time of refrom in the Church of England.
This enlightened change influenced ideas of cultural, ethical and .